Pound garlic and chilies into a paste with pestle and mortar to release their essential oils. This is the beginning of the process of making the dressing and the salad together in the pestle and mortar.
Add the long beans and the cherry tomatoes and pound them enough to break up and release the juices. Add the julienned papaya and pound.
Season mixture with palm sugar, fish sauce, and lime or tamarind juice. Pound softly to mix together all the flavors. Make sure not to bruise the strands too much or the salad will become limp and mushy when it should be crunchy and fresh. Taste for correct seasoning – it should be equally sweet, sour and salty.
Add peanuts and dried shrimp and pound to mix quickly, then spoon onto a plate and serve with accompanying vegetables such as raw cabbage, morning glory stems, cucumber, and long beans cut into bite-sized pieces.
Julienning the Thai way: This is usually done with green mango, papaya or any large fruits with lots of flesh and a large stone. Peel the fruit, then using a sharp knife, chop into its flesh many, many, many times to create parallel grooves. To get the julienned pieces, you merely slice across the grooves in layers and the julienned flesh will rain into your bowl.